Fourfold Formula

Principles of philosophy, management, science and economics have come up with a lot of answers which have filled many bookshelves but they eventually sum up to our ancient fourfold technique – Saama, Daana, Bheda and Dhanda.

Saama is the best way to sort out a problem. Both the parties will do well to work out a suitable via media by discussing it without any animosity or ill will and arrive at a win-win situation.

If Saama fails, then one need not lose heart. Daana – a little give and take policy can put the minds of either side to rest. One could assuage the disagreeing team or person with a compromise. Sometimes a valuable gift or a certain amount can change hands so that one side does not feel shortchanged during the deal. Daana is often misconstrued as bribe which does more harm than any good in the long run.

Bheda, the third method supports the idea of debating over an issue to help both sides see the loopholes in one’s own conviction. The sheer logic or the lack of it in one’s argument will eventually help them to arrive at a solution albeit grudgingly.
Dhanda the last resort could translate either as stick or punishment.

A harsh measure can manifest itself as a panacea when one is dealing with an obstinate opponent who fails to see sense; despite being handled with kid gloves.

It is interesting to note that Krishna utilised this conventional method while resolving the issue over the throne of Hastinapura. He used Saama while he tried to talk sense into Duryodhana about Yudhishtira’s right to kingship.

When he found the prince to be adamant, he resorted to Daana and suggested that the Pandavas be given at least five villages as compensation. Duryodhana’s haughty denial led to a heated dispute –Bheda, during which Krishna listed out the atrocities of the former and why he should relegate his stance.

It was only when Krishna was sure that the Kuru prince was incorrigible, he counseled war as a plausible response to the question of ascendancy.

The practicality of this classical procedure is obvious. In today’s world, we could try out Saama, Daana and Bheda at our discretion to overcome unnecessary litigations and feuds and avoid breeding bad blood.

If issues escalate beyond manageable proportions, we can appeal to the law of the land exercise appropriate Dhanda!

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